Paul Preston, Professor of Contemporary Spanish Studies at LSE, reviews this book, Richard Baxell’s second work on the British contribution to the International Brigades, as “the definitive work on the British volunteers” – and I have to agree with him.
The work has as its foundation his 2002 PhD thesis on “The British Battalion of the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939” carried out at LSE under Preston’s supervision, which looked at “the role, experiences and contribution of the volunteers” and was subsequently published as “British Volunteers in the Spanish Civil War” in 2004 by Routledge as part of their series “the Cañada Blanch Studies on Contemporary Spain”. Baxell then revisited the topic in this volume published in hardback in 2012 and then in paperback in 2014 (the edition reviewed here) by Aurum Press Ltd.
With the historiography largely consisting of studies of the International Brigades as a whole, the story relating to the British volunteers relied principally on their own memoirs which started to be published from the 1980s coinciding with the 50th anniversary of the war. An academic treatment was missing until the publication of Baxell’s thesis.
“Unlikely Warriors” takes this groundwork and skilfully blends in an engrossing oral historical aspect in the form of the volunteers’ own words. Also incorporated are elements of the extensive International Brigade archives sent to Moscow after the war – now available online – together with papers from the British Security Services held in the National Archives. The combination gives an academically sound portrayal of the conflict – yet one which is immensely readable as the volunteers’ voices come through illustrating their beliefs, doubts and experiences of the actions and events that the British Battalion were involved in. The volume also covers the experience of the Brigaders who were to languish in Nationalist prisons as well as the much smaller involvement of British individuals who fought on the side of Franco.
The post-war reaction and disappointment after the fall of the Republic of those involved receives good coverage as does the sometimes complicated relationship between the Comintern, the Communist Party and the men who fought for Spain in what they saw, primarily, as an anti-fascist response.
In conclusion, this is highly recommended and is unlikely ever to be surpassed as a sensitive and encompassing review of the idealistic Britons who fought for the liberty of Spain in the Spanish Civil War.
Brian Curragh MA – 20th April 2018
Very sad news today about the passing of Colonel Tim May on Thursday 10th December 2015. Apart from his immense role in promoting the Oxford Yeomanry and the establishment of the superb museum now open in Woodstock – his role in Winston Churchill’s state funeral has gone down in history.
I covered this incident in my Masters Dissertation on the Queen’s Own Oxfordshire Hussars as follows:
The final act that illustrates Churchill’s continuing connection with the QOOH, came with his plans for his own funeral. The stipulation that the QOOH was not only to be included in the procession but to be the fifth military detachment, a position that placed the detachment ahead of the Guards regiments. This provoked a Guards officer to suggest to Major Timothy May, QOOH commander on the day, that the QOOH were “incorrectly” arranged to which May responded “In the Oxfordshire Yeomanry we always do state funerals this way”.
 Operation Hope Not, TNA, DEFE 25/38.
 Jenkins, Winston Churchill, Oxfordshire Hussar, p.61.
Requiescat in pace.
Does anyone know the source for this photograph of Arthur O’Neill or has access to a better copy than this? This was copied off the excellent “The History of Parliament” blog which noted O’Neill as the first Member of Parliament to lose his life in active service during the Great War. All suggestions gratefully received!
In conjunction with the Western Front Association, those nice people at Helion & Co* have introduced three annual prizes for book proposals coming out of research carried out either privately, as part of a Masters Degree study or as part of a PhD project. The three prizes will total £6,000 per annum so represent a very significant investment into research currently being carried out. The three awards will be entitled the Terraine Prize for private research; the Holmes Prize for MA research and the Edmonds Prize for PhD research. The 2015 Prizes will be announced in November so if you are involved in projects that are relevant, get your book proposal in the running. More details here.
* – I might be slightly biased as Helion published “Stemming The Tide” (now out in paperback) so clearly have enormous promise in spotting new talent!
100 years since the issue of these – can I wish all those I know & care about a safe & peaceful Christmas & New Year.
When researching for my chapter on the Battle of Loos – to be included in the follow up volume to “Stemming The Tide: Officers and Leadership in The British Expeditionary Force 1914”, I came across an interchange of memoranda between Major-Generals George Thesiger, commanding 9th (Scottish) Division, and Thompson Capper, commanding 7th Division, which sheds some light on the nature of the day to day relationship between divisions placed alongside each other in the frontline. The two divisions were then part of I Corps under Hubert Gough and were readying themselves for the battle that was to commence in fourteen days time.
Thesiger had sent a type-written note to 7th Division which was couched in a somewhat administrative and officious manner:
“As there seems to have been some misunderstanding about the new fire trench from K sap to your left sap head, I should like to point out that this Division does not recognise and has never recognised any responsibility for this portion of the line. The 120 yards of fire trench that the 9th Division has dug…has been undertaken by this Division voluntarily as a “quid pro quo” for the trench which was dug from Fontes des Marichons to Barts and afterwards handed over to us by the 7th Division and in order to work in a friendly spirit with this Division….I shall be glad if the 7th Division will undertake all further responsibility for this Section of the line. Do you agree to this arrangement?”
Capper responded by handwriting on the back of the memorandum the following: “As regards the labour of placing accessories in position, I understand you have to handle a number proportionate to those we have to handle as 3 is to 2. Under these conditions, I think the best plan would before us to completely take over the new trench…We would undertake all liabilities for the new trench…I will send a staff officer to meet anyone you delegate…and arrange the boundary mark.”
Both Thesiger and Capper were to be killed in action in the opening days of Loos and it is sometimes easy to get caught up in the action of the battle, thereby losing sight of the daily “management” tasks of commanders in the field. Who was responsible for which trench was simply one of the thousands of details that were under consideration by the staff at divisional and corps levels leading up to an offensive and gives a small insight into the scale of the operations these men were facing.
A recent visit to The National Archives unearthed the following interesting sketches from Haig’s diary. The drawings are by Commandant E. Requin, a liaison officer between General Joffre and General d’Urbals’s HQ.
The first sketch shows Joffre himself and then a soldier of the 97th Regiment.
The next is two views of Private J Dalzell of “The New Army”
The final sketch shows a pipe-smoking French solder in his dress uniform.
Haig thought the sketch of Joffre was “excellent” and noted that Requin had been at Aldershot.